News and Research




Engineers receive $1 million for implantable system to detect lung cancer

Collaborators include Intel, Garwood Medical Devices and Roswell Park Cancer Institute




Garwood Medical's two-pronged strategy coming into focus

by Dan Miner, Buffalo Business First

Garwood Medical Devices leaders say they're making steady progress on two separate medical device products, expecting to launch them both in 2018.




Techconnect World Innovation Conference: May 2017

Computational Analysis of Electrical Stimulation Devices to Promote Wound Healing

Electric stimulation (ES) therapy involves the use of lower energy, static, or time-varying electric and magnetic fields and associated electrical currents to stimulate a therapeutic physiological response that accelerates wound healing in human tissue. In this presentation, we discuss this therapy and demonstrate the use of 3D computational models to predict the electric field and current density patterns induced in human tissue by voltage activated electrodes on the skin surface. The analysis takes into account electrode configurations, transient voltage waveforms and all relevant tissues including their frequency dependent electrical properties. The models provide insight into ES therapy and enable the rational design of novel ES devices.




Garwood Medical Devices Announces Two Key Patents Granted

For immediate release: March 31, 2017

BUFFALO, NY – Garwood Medical Devices, a Western New York medical device company whose
mission is advancing infection control through innovation, announced today that the U.S. Patent
and Trademark Office has granted two important patents to the company.




Bacterial Biofilms on Electrochemically Active Cathodic Titanium Surfaces

Jin Guo

Bacterial infection is a major concern in orthopedic implants that may lead to implant failure and revision. The resistance of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics increases the difficulties of fighting against infections. In this work, the effects of electrochemical reduction reactions on bacterial biofilm cultured on electrochemically active metal surfaces were investigated to better understand the mechanism of bacterial response to reduction electrochemistry. The influence of voltage and electrolyte were studied on the cellular behavior of E. coli HM22 cultured on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) surfaces held at cathodic voltages. Relatively weak potentials at -1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) could significantly reduce the cell viability in saline solution after 24 hours compared to controls at open circuit potential (OCP, in the range of -0.2 V to -0.38 V vs. Ag/AgCl) (p < 0.05). However, bacterial biofilms cultured on cpTi surfaces in LB media require more negative voltage (below -1.2 V) to induce significant killing efficacy. On the other hand, the cellular response was correlated with the electrochemical properties of titanium-oxide-solution interface through methods like electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and current density monitoring. The electrochemical impedance of the oxide-bacteriasolution interface was dependent on the presence of applied voltage. Sustained voltage treatment at -1 V decreased the impedance of titanium-oxide-bacteria interface in both LB media and NaCl solution at 0.1 Hz than those at OCP (p<0.05). In LB media, the presence of bacterial biofilm significantly reduced the average current density experienced by cpTi surfaces at -1 V compared to controls without cells at -1 V in 24 hours (p < 0.05). Significant morphological changes were found after voltage treatment in NaCl solution and LB media. In general, ruptured cells after voltage treatment at -1 V in NaCl solution ended in less length, width and height than control cells at OCP (p<0.05). The applied potential at -1 V decreased the length and height of all the cells in LB media after time-lapse photography compared to those of untreated controls (p<0.05). Finally, time-lapse photography, which could assess cellular movement of bacteria under voltage treatment in real time, was utilized and proved to be an effective method of cellular investigation besides LIVE/DEAD assay, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Average bacterial cell velocity significantly increased once -1 V voltage treatment started and then dropped in two hours in NaCl solution (p<0.05), while no such difference was seen during the test in LB media.




Cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulation of titanium for prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm infections

Mary Canty a, Nicole Luke-Marshall b, Anthony Campagnari b, Mark Ehrensberger a,c,⇑

Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms limits available treatment methods for implant-associated orthopaedic infections. This study evaluated the effects of applying cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulations (CVCES) of 1.5 V and 1.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) to coupons of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) incubated in cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) as a method of preventing bacterial attachment. Stimulations were applied for 2, 4, and 8 h and coupon-associated and planktonic colony-forming units (CFU) were enumerated following stimulation. Compared to open circuit potential (OCP) controls, CVCES for 4 h at 1.8 V significantly reduced 4 7 coupon-associated MRSA CFU by 99.9% (1.30  107 vs. 4.45  10 , p = 0.047) and A. baumannii coupon4 associated CFU by 99.9% (1.64  10 vs. 5.93  10 , p = 0.001) and reduced planktonic CFU below detectable levels for both strains. CVCES at 1.8 V for 8 h also reduced coupon-associated and planktonic CFU below detectable levels for each strain. CVCES at 1.5 V for 4 and 8 h, and 1.8 V for 2 h did not result in clinically relevant reductions. For 4 and 8 h stimulations, the current density was significantly higher for 1.8 V than 1.5 V, an effect directly related to the rate of water and oxygen reduction on the cpTi surface. This significantly increased the pH, a suspected influence in decreased CFU viability. The voltagedependent electrochemical properties of cpTi likely contribute to the observed antimicrobial effects of CVCES. This study revealed that CVCES of titanium could prevent coupon-associated and planktonic CFU of Gram-positive MRSA and Gram-negative A. baumannii from reaching detectable levels in a magnitude-dependent and time-dependent manner.




Buffalo startup exec on the complexity of finding a manufacturing partner

Dan Miner, Buffalo Business First

This week's cover story in Buffalo Business First focuses on the growing cohort of startup companies moving into manufacturing – an obvious step for any enterprise that plans to have a physical product.





New cosurface capacitive stimulators for the development of active osseointegrative implantable devices

Marco P. Soares dos Santos1,2,* , Ana Marote3,* , T. Santos4, JoãoTorrão2, A. Ramos1,2, JoséA. O. Simões2, OdeteA. B. daCruz e Silva3, Edward P. Furlani5,6, Sandra I.Vieira3,† & JorgeA. F. Ferreira1,2,†

Non-drug strategies based on biophysical stimulation have been emphasized for the treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal conditions. However, to date, an effective stimulation system for intracorporeal therapies has not been proposed. This is particularly true for active intramedullary implants that aim to optimize osseointegration. The increasing demand for these implants, particularly for hip and knee replacements, has driven the design of innovative stimulation systems that are effective in bone-implant integration. In this paper, a new cosurface-based capacitive system concept is proposed for the design of implantable devices that deliver controllable and personalized electric field stimuli to target tissues. A prototype architecture of this system was constructed for in vitro tests, and its ability to deliver controllable stimuli was numerically analyzed. Successful results were obtained for osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation in the in vitro tests. This work provides, for the first time, a design of a stimulation system that can be embedded in active implantable devices for controllable bone-implant integration and regeneration. The proposed cosurface design holds potential for the implementation of novel and innovative personalized stimulatory therapies based on the delivery of electric fields to bone cells. 




Cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulation of titanium implants as treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus periprosthetic infections.

Ehrensberger MT1, Tobias ME2, Nodzo SR2, Hansen LA3, Luke-Marshall NR3, Cole RF2, Wild LM4, Campagnari AA3.


Effective treatment options are often limited for implant-associated orthopedic infections. In this study we evaluated the antimicrobial effects of applying cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulation (CVCES) of -1.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) to commercially pure titanium (cpTi) substrates with preformed biofilm-like structures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The in vitro studies showed that as compared to the open circuit potential (OCP) conditions, CVCES of -1.8 V for 1 h significantly reduced the colony-forming units (CFU) of MRSA enumerated from the cpTi by 97% (1.89 × 106 vs 6.45 × 104 CFU/ml) and from the surrounding solution by 92% (6.63 × 105 vs. 5.15 × 104 CFU/ml). The in vivo studies, utilizing a rodent periprosthetic infection model, showed that as compared to the OCP conditions, CVCES at -1.8 V for 1 h significantly reduced MRSA CFUs in the bone tissue by 87% (1.15 × 105 vs. 1.48 × 104 CFU/ml) and reduced CFU on the cpTi implant by 98% (5.48 × 104 vs 1.16 × 103 CFU/ml). The stimulation was not associated with histological changes in the host tissue surrounding the implant. As compared to the OCP conditions, the -1.8 V stimulation significantly increased the interfacial capacitance (18.93 vs. 98.25 μF/cm(2)) and decreased polarization resistance (868,250 vs. 108 Ω-cm(2)) of the cpTi. The antimicrobial effects are thought to be associated with these voltage-dependent electrochemical surface properties of the cpTi. 




What Are the Rates and Causes of Hospital Readmission After Total Knee Arthroplasty?

William W. Schairer, BA, Thomas P. Vail, MD, and Kevin J. Bozic, MD, MBA


Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and related interventions such as revision TKA and the treatment of infected TKAs are commonly performed procedures. Hospital readmission rates are used to measure hospital performance, but risk factors (both medical and surgical) for readmission after TKA, revision TKA, and treatment for the infected TKA have not been well characterized.


We measured (1) the unplanned hospital readmission rate in primary TKA and revision TKA, including antibiotic-spacer staged revision TKA to treat infection. We also evaluated (2) the medical and surgical causes of readmission and (3) risk factors associated with unplanned hospital readmission.


This retrospective cohort study included a total of 1408 patients (1032 primary TKAs, 262 revision TKAs, 113 revision of infected TKAs) from one institution. All hospital readmissions within 90 days of discharge were evaluated for timing and cause. Diagnoses at readmission were categorized as surgical or medical. Readmission risk was assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model that incorporated patient demographics and medical comorbidities.


The unplanned readmission rate for the entire cohort was 4% at 30 days and 8% at 90 days. At 90 days postoperatively, revision of an infected TKA had the highest readmission rate, followed by revision TKA, with primary TKA having the lowest rate. Approximately three-fourths of readmissions were the result of surgical causes, mostly infection, arthrofibrosis, and cellulitis, whereas the remainder of readmissions were the result of medical causes. Procedure type (primary TKA versus revision TKA or staged treatment for infected TKA), hospital stay more than 5 days, discharge destination, and a fluid/electrolyte abnormality were each associated with risk of unplanned readmission.


Patients having revision TKA, whether for infection or other causes, are more likely to have an unplanned readmission to the hospital than are patients having primary TKA. When assessing hospital performance for TKA, it is important to distinguish among these surgical procedures.